The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in acute inflammatory responses. In response to infection or tissue injury, IL-6 stimulates the production of acute phase reactants, hematopoiesis as well as the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes into IL-17 producing helper T cells. Interestingly, IL-6 is also described as anti-inflammatory myokine, a cytokine, which is produced from muscle cells during exercises. Dysregulation of IL-6 expression is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Blockade of IL-6 mediated signaling cascades by using monoclonal antibodies is a promising and effective therapeutic approach to treat a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Moreover, IL-6 has been proposed as biomarker for the development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, since secretion of IL-6 is significantly increased in COVID-19 patients and associated with poor prognosis due to extensive lung injury.
Product Name: human Interleukin-6, His-tag
Catalog No.: P2020-140
- RefSeq Links: HGNC:6018; NX_P05231; NP_000591.1; NP_000591.1NM_000600.4; PDBe 1il6 A; UniProt: P05231
Synonyms: Interleukin-6, IL-6, IL6, B-cell stimulatory factor 2 (BSF-2), BSF2, CTL differentiation factor (CDF), Hybridoma growth factor, Interferon beta-2 (IFN-beta-2), IFNB2
“We highly valued the fast and excellent communication and the high flexibility of the team! For any future project, we will preferably entrust in trenzyme’s protein production services.”
Dr. Thore Hettmann
Probiodrug AG, Halle/Saale, Germany
- Species: Homo sapiens
- Tags: His-tag, C-terminal
Sequence without tags (AA 30-212):
Expression Host: HEK293
- Formulation: PBS; pH 7.4.
- Format: Liquid, stored and shipped at -80 °C
Purity: > 85% as determined by SDS-PAGE
- Application: ELISA, WB, Functional assay
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine, which belongs to the type I cytokine family and is produced by a variety of cell types, including mononuclear phagocytes, dendritic cells, vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Signaling is induced by binding of IL-6 to the cytokine-binding polypeptide chain IL-6R alpha, leading to association of IL-6R alpha with the signal-transducing subunit gp130, together constituting the IL-6 receptor. Expression of the classical IL-6 receptor is restricted to hepatocytes, monocytes, some resting lymphocytes and some epithelial cells. Remarkably, alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage generate soluble forms of IL-6R alpha allowing IL-6 trans-signaling by binding of IL-6/IL-6R alpha complexes to gp130-expressing cells. Thereby, the range of IL-6 responsive cells is markedly increased as gp130 is ubiquitously expressed.
Both pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) induce the secretion of IL-6, which has both local and systemic effects. Next to IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1 beta are produced, which promote further synthesis of IL-6.
IL-6 is a crucial mediator of the acute phase response and fever. It stimulates the synthesis of acute phase reactants by hepatocytes, such as the C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen, and inhibits production of albumin, transferrin and fibronectin. Furthermore, IL-6 secretion leads to increased production of neutrophils in the bone marrow.
The differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into IL-17 producing helper T cells is stimulated by IL-6, whereas differentiation into regulatory T cells is concomitantly inhibited. Additionally, IL-6 promotes differentiation of activated B cells into antibody-producing plasma cells, all of which contributes to acquired immunity.
However, dysregulation of IL-6 production causes several chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity. Overproduction of IL-6 has been detected in the synovial cells of rheumatoid arthritis, swollen lymph nodes of the Castleman’s disease, myeloma cells, and peripheral blood cells. With tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, an effective therapeutic drug targeting IL-6 signaling cascades has been developed to treat immune-mediated diseases.
In contrast to its pro-inflammatory properties, IL-6 also acts as an anti-inflammatory myokine, which is a cytokine produced by contracting muscle cells.
Histogram of marked lane in gel picture